CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES, SYMPTOMS AND TREATMENTS

CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES, SYMPTOMS AND TREATMENTS

CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES

What are cardiovascular diseases?

Cardiovascular disease is a group of disorders of the heart and blood vessels, including:

Coronary heart disease: disease of the blood vessels that carry blood to the heart muscle (heart).

Cerebrovascular diseases: diseases of the blood vessels that carry blood to the brain.

Peripheral arteries: diseases of the blood vessels that carry blood to the upper and lower limbs.

Congenital heart disease: malformations of the heart present from birth.

Deep venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism: blood clots (thrombi) in the veins of the legs, which can detach (emboli) and lodge in the vessels of the heart, lungs and brain.

ARRHYTHMIAS

Arrhythmias are disorders of the heart rhythm. These disorders involve rapid heart rhythms or tachycardias, as well as slow rhythms called bradycardia.

Cardiac electrophysiology is a clinical and interventional subspecialty of cardiology that is responsible for the study, diagnosis and treatment of these disorders.

What are cardiovascular diseases?

  • Electrocardiogram
  • Echocardiogram
  • Stress test
  • Holter
  • Monitoring of blood pressure
  • Tilting table exam

ELECTROCARDIAGRAMA

It is a test that records the electrical activity of the heart that occurs in each heartbeat. This is recorded from the patient’s body surface and printed on paper by means of a graphic representation or layout, where different waves representing electric stimuli of the atria and ventricles are observed.

Echocardiogram

 

It is a study of the heart using ultrasound, similar to that used in other ultrasound modalities. Recognize the size and shape of each of the heart cavities and large vessels. It is very useful to identify the extent of damage caused by infarcted area.

The Marly Clinic also has studies of color echocardiography, stress with exercise, pharmacological and transesophageal stress; The latter is performed by a probe that is advanced through the mouth in a similar way to digestive endoscopy, obtaining images of the heart of excellent quality.

PROOF OF EFFORT

It involves subjecting to exercise in an endless band, controlled permanently with electrocardiogram and taking heart rate and blood pressure. Periodically the elevation and the speed increase, according to pre-established protocol. With this test, in addition to evaluating the physical capacity of the individual and the behavior of the heart rate and blood pressure, the diagnosis of heart ischemia can be made, which implies a risk of myocardial infarction.

HOLTER

It is a record of electrocardiogram continuously for a prolonged period, about 24 hours. It is used to study changes in heart rate or conduction. It is useful in the study of loss of consciousness, to evaluate patients with palpitations or to determine the severity of arrhythmia in patients with dilated cardiopathy or after infarction. It also helps to know if there is intermittent atrial fibrillation as a cause of cerebral infarcts.

MONITORING OF BLOOD PRESSURE

It is the record of blood pressure for 24 hours. It serves to confirm the diagnosis of white coat hypertension, possible episodes of hypotension, evaluate the severity of hypertension or the effectiveness of the treatment.

EXAMINATION OF TILTING TABLE

It is also known as the inclined table test. It is a test designed to evaluate the regulation of the autonomic nervous system on blood pressure and heart rate. It is done by recording the heart rate and blood pressure in basal conditions, after placing the patient in an upright position and after administering a vasodilator. Its main indication is to evaluate loss of knowledge suggestive of syncope.

INFARCTION OF MYOCARDIUM

Myocardial infarction is the main cause of death in Colombia and in the world. It is an acute phenomenon that is mainly due to obstructions that prevent blood from flowing to the heart. The most frequent cause is the formation of fat deposits in the walls of the blood vessels that supply the heart (atherosclerosis). It usually occurs in the adult population, although atherosclerosis starts at a younger age.

Risk factor’s

  • Adulthood
  • Smoking
  • Sedentary
  • Obesity (increased abdominal perimeter)
  • Arterial hypertension
  • Dyslipidemia (elevation of cholesterol and triglycerides)
  • Inheritance of coronary disease
  • High level of emotional stress
  • Consumption of cocaine and others
  • Hallucinogens
  • Diabetes.

SYMPTOM

  • Oppression in the chest that can radiate to the neck, arms and jaw.
  • Feeling fatigue with small efforts.
  • Sickness.
  • Profuse sweating

If you have symptoms such as those described above, go immediately to the nearest emergency room, time is vital to save the heart. The Thomson Medical has an emergency service 24 hours a day, every day of the year for the management of these diseases.

TREATMENT

There are several treatment alternatives during the course of myocardial infarction, but the most effective form of treatment is urgent cardiac catheterization and possible coronary angioplasty. In other more complex cases where the disease involves all the arteries of the coronary tree, it will be obtained by the surgical treatment of the coronary disease by means of a vascular revascularization with vascular bridges to the obstructed arteries.